Bone marrow (BM) is a complex tissue harboring hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, endothelial cells, adipocytes,osteocytes, and fibroblastoid stromal cells. On cell culture expansion, BM can yield a multipotent precursor population. The prospect of cell-based therapy using MSCs has several advantages, including the relative ease with which they can be extracted from autologous bone marrow or adipose tissue and expanded in vitro to reach the purity and numbers required for transplantation.
Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolation, characterization, and large scale proliferation techniques have been established. ASCs are being used widely preclinically as well as in clinical trials aiming to treat various human diseases.
Several cell populations can be isolated from different parts of the tooth with stem cells properties including: dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cell from apical papilla (SCAP), stem cells derived from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) , stem cells from human periodontal ligament (PDL) . These cells have multi-differentiation potential, with the capacity to give rise to distinct cell lineages, neurogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic. They are able to differentiate into odontoblast- like cells with a very great and active mineralization and migratory potential, leading to an organized three-dimensional dentin-like structures in vitro and the ability to produce dentin in vivo.